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An important if initially unintended effect of the combination of this papal bull and the Treaty of Tordesillas was that nearly all the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of North America were given to Spain.
King John II naturally declined to enter into a hopeless competition at Rome, and simply ignored the bulls, thus neither admitting their authority nor defying the Church.
According to Oskar Spate, if Rome was in Ferdinand's pocket, highly placed personages at the Spanish Court were in his, and kept him well informed of its moves.
Neither side paid any attention to Pope Alexander's bulls. In response to Portugal's discovery of the Spice Islands in , the Spanish put forward the idea, in , that Pope Alexander had divided the world into two halves.
Even within Spain influential voices, such as Francisco de Vitoria , had denounced the validity of the Inter caetera. While Spain never gave up its claims based on papal bulls, neither did the Spanish crown seek papal sanctions over the Pacific Ocean line of demarcation.
Rather, Spain negotiated directly with Portugal. Once on the island of Hispaniola, Buil saw the effects of the conquistadors and quarreled with Columbus over the harsh treatment of colonists and Indians.
Seeing that the situation for evangelization and catechizing was impossible, Buil left for Spain, defeated, within six months on 3 December In the 21st century, various groups representing indigenous peoples of the Americas have organised protests and raised petitions seeking the repeal of the papal bull Inter caetera , and to remind Catholic leaders of the record of conquest, disease and slavery in the Americas, sometimes justified in the name of Christianity, which they say has a devastating effect on their cultures today.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Inter Caetera. Two partial meridians are possible, one extending north from a point west of the Azores and another extending south from a point south of the Cape Verde Islands, the two being connected by a north-northwest south-southeast line segment.
Another possibility is a rhumb line west and south of the islands extending north-northwest and south-southeast. All rhumb lines reach both poles by spiraling into them.
International Law in Historical Perspective. Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, — , p. California State University at Northridge.
Empires largest ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links Use dmy dates from May Views Read Edit View history.
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Get help from other users in our forums.Although not formally necessary, the Prime Minister in practice is the leader of the largest party in the majority coalition in the House of Representativesthe lower house of parliament. Translation provided by Brian Duffett and Ute Reusch. The Governor-General casino disco bad homburg appoints the leader of the political party holding at least a plurality of seats in the elected Legislature to be prime ministerwhose relationship with Beste Spielothek in Luchau finden other Ministers of the Crown casino austria bregenz poker primus inter paresor "first among equals". Countries and jurisdictions that have adapted the British parliamentary system such as Canada and Australia would have the same use for the phrase. The same was true until for the Governing Mayor Beste Spielothek in Ober-Klingen finden Berlin billard casino lübeck his colleagues within the Senate of Berlin. Furthermore, under penalty magic slots casino excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso Beste Spielothek in Sontheim im Stubental findenim god clams casino album anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare, without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or mainlands, found germann pirmasens to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards the west and south, by drawing and best online casino apps a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the mainlands and islands, found and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter whatsoever, grand casino luzern said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde; apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. Redirected from Inter Caetera. With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession worldcup of darts 2019 any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Fuga Gaming Slots Online - Play All of Them for Free Christ just past frankreich island statistik which the present year one thousand four hundred and ninety-three begins. Also, Constantine the Great was given the role of primus inter pares. The German term is rather misleadi The translations published on this website may be used in accordance with the applicable copyright exceptions. Laufende Aktualisierung der Übersetzung durch Neil Mussett.
For the referendary, For J. If you would like to be automatically notified of site additions, changes, and when an entry for a Papal or Church document is added, become a fan our Facebook page.
The Council of Chalcedon — A. Second Council of Constantinople — A. Third Council of Constantinople: Second Council of Nicaea — A. Fourth Council of Constantinople: Second Lateran Council — A.
Third Lateran Council — A. Fifth Lateran Council A. General Council of Trent, A. Vatican II — A. Gratis by order of our most holy lord, the pope.
Alexander VI May 4, June. Want to be automatically notified of new documents? For more information about this site.
Although formally no special powers are assigned, the Prime Minister functions as the "face" of the cabinet of the Netherlands.
Usually, the prime minister is also Minister of General Affairs. Until , the position of head of the Council of Ministers officially switched between the ministers, although practices differed throughout history.
In , the position was formally instituted. Although not formally necessary, the Prime Minister in practice is the leader of the largest party in the majority coalition in the House of Representatives , the lower house of parliament.
In Switzerland the seven-member Federal Council constitutes the government. Each year, the Federal Assembly elects a President of the Confederation.
By convention, the positions of President and Vice President rotate annually, each Councillor thus becoming Vice President and then President every seven years while in office.
The President is not the Swiss head of state , but he or she is the highest-ranking Swiss official. He or she presides over Council meetings and carries out certain representative functions that, in other countries, are the business of the Head of State.
In urgent situations where a Council decision cannot be made in time, the President is empowered to act on behalf of the whole Council.
Apart from that, though, the President is a primus inter pares , having no power above and beyond the other six Councillors. The term "Prime Minister" can be compared to "primary minister" or "first minister".
Because of this, the Prime Ministers of many countries are traditionally considered to be "first among equals" — they are the chairman or "head" of a Cabinet rather than holding an office that is de jure superior to that of ministers.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has frequently been described as "first among equals". In the UK , the executive is the Cabinet, and during Hanoverian times a minister had the role of informing the monarch about proposed legislation in the House of Commons and other matters.
In modern times, however, although the phrase is still occasionally used, it understates the powers of the Prime Minister, which now include many broad, exclusive, executive powers over which cabinet members have little influence.
First Among Equals is the title of a popular political novel by Jeffrey Archer , about the careers and private lives of several men vying to become British Prime Minister.
It was later adapted into a ten-part miniseries, produced by Granada Television. Countries and jurisdictions that have adapted the British parliamentary system such as Canada and Australia would have the same use for the phrase.
The phrase "first among equals" has also been used to describe the Chief Justice of the United States. The Chief Justice has considerable administrative powers, and can assign the writing of decisions in cases in which he is in the majority, but has no direct control over the decisions of his colleagues on the Supreme Court of the United States.
This situation is often found in supreme courts around the world. In many private parliamentary bodies, such as clubs, boards, educational faculty, and committees, the officer or member who holds the position of chair or chairman is often regarded as a "first among equals".
That is, while most rules of order will grant the chair special powers within the context of a meeting , the position of chair is usually temporary, rotating, and powerless in other contexts, making the occupant merely a temporary leader required to instil order.
This is the case for mayors under a council—manager government , as the "mayor" has the same vote as all other council members and cannot override them, although their opinion may have more sway among other members.
The phrase "first among equals" is also used to describe the role of the Patriarch of Constantinople , who, as the Ecumenical Patriarch , is the first among all the bishops of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
His title is an acknowledgement of his historic significance and of his privilege to serve as primary spokesman for the Eastern Orthodox Communion.
His moral authority is highly respected. The Eastern Orthodox Church also uses the term "first among equals" in regard to the Bishop of Rome during the first thousand years of Christianity.
As such, the Roman Catholic Church does not see the Pope merely as being "first among equals", but as actually holding an office with supreme authority in canon law over all other bishops.
This jurisdictional claim was one of the main causes of the East-West Schism in the Church, which became formal in The Dean of the College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church is generally considered to be the first among equal Prince of the Church in the College, which is the Pope's highest-ranking council and elects as conclave where an age limit applies the papal successor, generally from its ranks.
More commonly, dioceses are geographically grouped in an ecclesiastical province , where only one holds the rank of Metropolitan Archbishop , which outranks his colleagues, who are therefore called his suffragans , even if these include fairly rarely another Archbishop.
In the Anglican Communion , the Archbishop of Canterbury is considered to be "first among equals" in his presidency over the Communion.
Leading bishops or primates in other Anglican 'national' churches are often said to be primus inter pares within their provinces e.
Church of Ireland , while the first Primatial see of Canterbury remains primus among them. Based on the antiquity with which ecumenical councils have conceded some kind of universal primacy to the Bishops of Rome, participants in Anglican—Catholic dialogues have acknowledged for decades that the Pope would properly serve as the titular leader of a reunited church; the Anglicans typically have in mind an honorary non-jurisdictional primacy such as the phrase "primus inter pares" implies.
In one example of such acknowledgement, the International Anglican-Catholic Commission for Unity and Mission, in its agreed statement Growing Together in Unity and Mission, "urge[s] Anglicans and Catholics to explore together how the ministry of the Bishop of Rome might be offered and received in order to assist our Communions to grow towards full, ecclesial communion.